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The thermodynamic state of a closed system containing a pure fluid changes from (T1,p1) to (T2, p2), where T and p denote the temperature and pressure,respectively.  Let Q denote the heat absorbed (> 0 if absorbed by the system) and W the work done (>0 if done by the system). Neglect changes in kinetic and potential energies. Which one of the following is CORRECT?

  1. Q is the path-independent and W is the path-dependent
  2. Q is path-dependent and W is path-independent
  3. (Q – W) is path-independent
  4. (Q + W) is path-independent
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